UARK Graphic Design Research Bibliography — Reclaiming the Natural State
BBC Research & Consulting. (2018, March). Economic and Health Benefits of Bicycling in Northwest Arkansas. https://8ce82b94a8c4fdc3ea6d-b1d233e3bc3cb10858bea65ff05e18f2.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/d0/97/cf26b21948308adae6828624729a/march-2018-nw-arkansas-final-report-corrected.pdf
Commissioned by The Walton Family Foundation, this research conducted and organized by BBC Research and Consulting focuses on the economic and health benefits of bicycling in Northwest Arkansas. This study outlines the various ways bicycling has affected our local community and provides many unique views of data that include property value in relation to trail locations and accessibility, business development near the trail, and provides profiles analyzing the data for gender and age.
Since this paper was commissioned by The Walton Family Foundation, it provides unique insights into the types of trails influenced by The Walton Family, and what types of trails were built with their influence. In addition, this research helps understand property values in relation to trail location, which can be analyzes to access its potential to gentrify NW Arkansas and determine trail accessibility and usage. This also provides unique insights into cultural benefits of the trail, as it discusses business development, personal developments, and trail usability.
Clark, A. (2019). Evaluating Walkability in Fayetteville, Arkansas: Impacts of Attitudinal Preferences and Urban Form on Walking Trip Counts and Body Mass Index Scores. Georgetown University. https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/1057398/walkability-fayetteville-arkansas-clark.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Anna Clarks thesis study, Evaluating Walkability in Fayetteville, Arkansas, is an extremely detailed look at data from two points in Fayetteville, consisting of Downtown Fayetteville and Weddington Drive. Data is analyzed in these two points to explore relationships between population health, social, and built environmental factors that influence physical activity rates in town.
Anna Clarks study is of extreme importance, as it is one of the few studies found that focus their lens on the town of Fayetteville to analyze population heath and built environmental factors to reach conclusions on how to improve trail usage and accessibility to possibility influence lifestyle changes. Anna covers several factors that could change in order to increase the access to trails and the amount of returning trail users in town, providing valuable research that has already been conducted with the local community.
Clark, S., Bungum, T., Shan, G., Meacham, M., & Coker, L. (2014). The effect of a trail use intervention on urban trail use in Southern Nevada. Preventive Medicine, 67, S17–S20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.04.027
This study, focused on trail use in Southern Nevada, is an invaluable resource as it not only explores statistics gathered on trail-users and their objectives, and frequency of use, but it also explores community feats to increase trail usage. In addition, this study incorporates large amounts of other studies, to compare trail statistics between various years to track growth and decay.
This paper is aware of the shortcomings of its research, stating that more needs to be done exploring minority trail usage and methods of increasing minority trail usage. One of the strongest suits of this research is comparisons between a control trail and a study trail, where methods were carried out to determine effective models of increasing trail usage.
Keith, S. J., Larson, L. R., Shafer, C. S., Hallo, J. C., & Fernandez, M. (2018). Greenway use and preferences in diverse urban communities: Implications for trail design and management. Landscape and Urban Planning, 172, 47–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.12.007
This study analyzed two greenway trails in the south that traverse diverse neighborhoods, Eastside Trail in Atlanta, GA and the Leon Creek Greenway in San Antonio, TX. Data gathered revealed motivations for visiting the greenways, and focused heavily on representing minority populations using, and surrounding the trail in hopes to identify strategies to maximize greenway-related benefits among diverse groups of trail users.
This study is very well researched and reveals many of the dynamics that exist between greenway locations and their actual users. This paper reveals that trail users are often white, have a high annual income, and possess a higher degree of education, despite many greenways existing in diverse neighborhoods. In addition, it outlined that cultural benefits appeared to be most important to minority greenway users in both locations. In its conclusion it offered that larger greenways could offer multiple segments that have unique functions, to facilitate cultural benefits and provide access to more vegetated locations.
Librett, J. J., Yore, M. M., & Schmid, T. L. (2006). Characteristics of Physical Activity Levels Among Trail Users in a U.S. National Sample. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31(5), 399–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2006.07.009
This U.S. National Sample analyzed results from 3717 adults to outline characteristics related to trail use and their users. This analyzes recommends advancing access to trails with recent finding pointing towards people becoming more physically active in response to creations or improved access to walking or cycling trails. Noting a lack of data on trail users, this study goes a step further to outline data in regard to age, gender, race, and income. In addition, this is one of the few studies comparing trail users and non-users.
This article is well researched and has a lot of data comparing various details but lacks a larger pool of data. One of the main points of this study that is useful is that its data reveals that different trail users seek different experiences, and a need to outline trail environments clearly for increased and more specified trail usage.
Starnes, H. A., Troped, P. J., Klenosky, D. B., & Doehring, A. M. (2011). Trails and Physical Activity: A Review. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(8), 1160–1174. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.8.8.1160
This study is formed from the collective research published on trail use and physical activity between 1980 and 2008 and synthesizes it to analyze the data for various points. Several demographics were covered across the 28 years of research, covering race, education, income, land-use, distance to trail, etc. in order to report and identify barriers to trail use. This paper also outlines the lack of previous research focused on trail activity and physical health, in addition to the need for more studies to focus on the youth, older adults, and minority trail users.
While this paper lacks the specific focus on minority trail users, its extensively well researched, and outlines the number of studies focused on different factors of trail use across the United States. With all of this data, they set out 3 policies that should be implemented to increase trail use and promote physical activity, in addition to outlining the national popularity of different types of trails like urban trails, mixed-used trails, vegetated trails, etc.
Summers, L. A., Lakhan, R., & Hackbert, P. H. (2020, May). Correlates of trail usage for physical activities in rural Appalachia, USA. Journal of Health and Social Sciences. https://journalhss.com/wp-content/uploads/Summers-10.192042020crrl5.pdf
This study includes data from three years, 2017–2019, from the Appalachia region of the United States. This study is of up-most importance as 42% of the Appalachia region is rural, compared to the 20% average of the entire United States. This research looks at data of who is using tails in more rural areas, to evaluate the physical activity of these people and to understand the role of sociodemographic and environmental aspects in affecting trail usage. Of importance in this research is promoting physical activity to Appalachia residents, as two states in its territory, West Virginia and Kentucky, are among the top five states to have the least physical activity.
This study is very well researched and very applicable to the Northwest Arkansas Area. These authors go through valid forms of gathering data and analyzing it through various methods to tease out as many details as possible on trail users. In addition, it analyzes its data to other trail evaluations performed in neighboring states to articulate the needs to Appalachia specific trail users.
The Outdoor Foundation. (2016). Outdoor Participation Report. https://outdoorindustry.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/2016-Outdoor-Recreation-Participation-Report_FINAL.pdf
This study from the Outdoor Foundation, the philanthropic art of Outdoor Industry Association, was published in 2016 and provides a detailed look at national data gathered by this organization. This research is well discussed and is accompanied by a plethora of data visuals that help to decode complication tables of information regarding trail users’ gender, race, age, education status, location, etc. in hopes of understanding trail users and increasing their usage of trail systems to promote physical activity.
This study is very well research and can provide many points of access into understanding national trail data. Unique to this research is the survey has included motivations for not going outdoors, which will help identify traditional reasons for not utilizing outdoor spaces. Of additional attention is the fact that the Outdoor Foundation has many grants across different states that provide communities with additional funds to expand trail usage in their areas, providing in-depth looks at community based approached and their pros and cons.
Walton Family Foundation. (2017). 2017 Northwest Arkansas Trail Usage Monitoring Report. https://8ce82b94a8c4fdc3ea6d-b1d233e3bc3cb10858bea65ff05e18f2.ssl.cf2.rackcdn.com/99/7b/c3d83bab42bab2054d68a04e1eb1/trails-usage-report-final-2017.pdf
Coming from The Walton Family Foundation, this study analyzes local NW Arkansas bicyclist data in comparison with pedestrian activities, such as walking, in order to understand local trail users. This study goes in depth on cycling data, identifying the most used locations and hours spent on the trail. This study also does this for pedestrians as well. This is one of the only studies location that compared location based data, and outlined the most frequented trails by activity.
This study has its faults, mainly that since its funded by the Walton Family Foundation, it largely boasts their additions to the NW Arkansas trail systems and leads me to believe this study was initiated just to bolster their additions to the community. Nonetheless, it does provide critical detail on both bicyclist and pedestrian data, and by location as well. What it does lack is a critical eye towards trail users specifically, as it doesn’t cover age, race, gender, or their sexual preferences. This data, while useful, will have to be paired with other research in order to get to trail users identities more specifically.
Walton Family Foundation. (2018, March 29). Trails and Cycling in Northwest Arkansas. https://www.waltonfamilyfoundation.org/learning/flash-cards/trails-and-cycling-in-northwest-arkansas
This webpage was compiled of data collected over the years by The Walton Family Foundation and its various partners who work to identify trail users in NW Arkansas. This page efficiently covers cycling and tourism in NW Arkansas and its positive impacts upon quality of life and personal health. In addition, this research helps lay out information regarding both cycling and non-cycling trail users, and their respective data per large city in NW Arkansas.
This webpage is just as detailed as the much more extensive reports from The Walton Family Foundation, but provides the information in a more digestible format, perhaps so the public can better understand their impact on trail usage, and the types of trail users locally. Of importance is trail data in regard to cities along the NW Arkansas Greenway, which can help identify how users change across the various locations of the multi-city connecting trail.